Enfo is proactive within academic research. We know that innovation and progress require communication, that is why we try to contribute into the world's knowledge base. 

Publications written  by our team members are:

Flexibility – future organization of monopoly and markets

The report is a discussion paper on various models of integration between flexibility markets and market participants. Enfo discuss the potential of both demand and production flexibility, barriers in today’s power market, the role of the aggregator, future market models and the future role of the DSO.

The electricity markets and participants face major changes, especially with handling the transition from predictable production to a more unpredictable situation with increasing degree of distributed renewable generation. Demand response is an important solution to meet these changes, and flexibility must be retrieved from the distribution system. It is here the DSO will play a central role in the future, in close dialogue with the TSO. The changes enables new business opportunities, as well as new market entrants if today’s market participants don’t act.

Key questions discussed in the report:

  • How do we establish a flexibility market, who will be responsible and what market rules must be established to overcome todays barriers for better utilization of demand response?
  • How can the DSO benefit from flexibility resources in grid operations without challenging their neutrality?
  • How do we organize balance responsibility and settlement with regard to an aggregator of flexible demand

Read the English summary here. 

Scientific publications written or co-authored by our team members are:

Modeling Consumer Flexibility of an Aggregator Participating in the Wholesale Power Market and the Regulation Capacity Market

A. Roos, S. Ø. Ottesen, T. F. Bolkesjø. Energy Procedia, Volume 58, 2014, Pages 79-86.

This paper presents an optimization framework for a load aggregator participating in the wholesale power market and the regulation capacity market. The objective of the aggregator is to minimize the total energy costs of a portfolio of energy consumers. The market organization is based on the Nordic model. The optimization model includes a detailed representation of the physical system at each consumer. Flexibility may come from load reductions, substitutions between energy carriers and from use of energy storage. A case study is performed using actual data from a set of Norwegian electricity consumers to test the model and estimate the value of aggregation in the current market framework.

Optimal Power Flow model with energy storage, an extension towards large integration of renewable energy sources

A. Maffei, D. Meola, G. Mara fioti,  G. Palmieri, L. Iannelli, G. Mathisen, E. Bjerkan, L. Glielmo. Preprints of the 19th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control
Cape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 2014 

The integration of renewable energy sources (RES) into modern electrical grids contributes to satisfying the continuously increasing energy demand. This can be done in a sustainable way since renewable sources are both inexhaustible and non-polluting. Different renewable energy devices, such as wind power, hydro power, and photo-voltaic generators are available nowadays. The main issue with the integration of such devices is their irregular generation capacity (in particular for wind and solar energy). Therefore energy storage units are used to mitigate the fluctuations during generation and supply. In this paper we formulate a model for the Alternate Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem consisting of simple dynamics for energy storage systems cast as a fi nite-horizon optimal control problem. The effect of energy storage is examined by solving a Norwegian demo network. The simulation results illustrate that the addition of energy storage, along with demand based cost functions, significantly reduces the generation costs and flattens the generation profi les.

Demonstrating active distribution grids and active demand

E. Bjerkan, T.G. Stensli, G. Mathisen, J. Engberg, Th. Engan Troset, L. Glielmo. CIRED, 23rd International Conference on Electricity Distribution Lyon, 15-18 June 2015. Paper 1528.

Active distribution grids and active customers require a rethinking of ICT tools and architectures in order to connect systems, platforms and actors previously unable to exchange information across domains of the energy business. This paper presents results from an R&D project focussing on developing a reference architecture for an open smart grid middleware, able to cope with the wide range of services necessary to integrate both DSOs, retailers and consumers as well as new actors (such as aggregators and prosumers) to a common framework. Such a framework is necessary to develop, scale and design future energy-related services to customers and other relevant stakeholders in the energy system operation.